Flag of Mauritania

Flag of Mauritania
The flag of Mauritania (علم موريتانيا, Drapeau de la Mauritanie) is a green field containing a gold star and crescent, with two red stripes at the top and bottom of the field. The original national flag was introduced under the instructions of President Moktar Ould Daddah and the constitution of 22 March 1959 and was adopted on 1 April 1959.

On 5 August 2017, a referendum was held by president Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz to change the national flag, abolish the senate, and other constitutional amendments. The referendum was successful, and the new flag, including two red horizontal stripes, which represent "the efforts and sacrifices that the people of Mauritania will keep consenting, to the price of their blood, to defend their territory", was adopted in time for its first raising on 28 November 2017, the 57th anniversary of Mauritania's independence from France.

It is one of the two flags of a currently Arabic-speaking country (the other being Egypt) that uses a shade of yellow. Also, like Egypt, the yellow colour is used in the central emblem (The crescent for Mauritania's flag and the Eagle of Saladin for Egypt's flag).

Green, gold and red are considered Pan-African. Green is also used to symbolise Islam, and the gold is for the sands of the Sahara desert. The red stripes, which were added to the flag in 2017, represent "the efforts and sacrifices that the people of Mauritania will keep consenting, to the price of their blood, to defend their territory". The crescent and star are symbols of Islam, which is Mauritania's state religion. There was no official specification or construction sheet for the exact relative measurements of the star and crescent, except the flag's measurements of 2:3, until May 2020.

National flag
Flag of Mauritania
Country - Mauritania

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Mauritania, officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية), is a sovereign country in Northwest Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest. Mauritania is the 11th-largest country in Africa and the 28th-largest in the world, and 90% of its territory is situated in the Sahara. Most of its population of 4.4 million lives in the temperate south of the country, with roughly one-third concentrated in the capital and largest city, Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast.

The country's name derives from the ancient Berber kingdom of Mauretania, located in North Africa within the ancient Maghreb. Berbers occupied what is now Mauritania beginning in the third century AD. Arabs under the Umayyad Caliphate conquered the area in the late seventh century, bringing Islam, Arab culture, and the Arabic language. In the early 20th century, Mauritania was colonized by France as part of French West Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, but has since experienced recurrent coups and periods of military dictatorship. The most recent coup, in 2008, was led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, who won subsequent presidential elections in 2009 and 2014. He was succeeded by Mohamed Ould Ghazouani following the 2019 elections, which were considered Mauritania's first peaceful transition of power since independence.
Neighbourhood - Country
  •  Algeria 
  •  Mali 
  •  Senegal 
  •  Western Sahara